Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis Questions & Answers

Updated: Jan 16, 2019
  • Author: Martha L Muller, MD, MPH; Chief Editor: Russell W Steele, MD  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What are classic signs and symptoms of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

What are the signs and symptoms of pediatric bacterial meningitis in infants and children?

How is pediatric bacterial meningitis definitively diagnosed?

What is the bacterial meningitis score for diagnosis of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the basis for IV antibiotic selection to treat pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What are the IDSA guidelines on the duration of antibiotic treatment of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What are AAP guidelines on duration of antibiotic treatment for pediatric bacterial meningitis?

How is pediatric bacterial meningitis prevented?

What is pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the pathophysiology of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the pathophysiology of pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

What are causes of pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

What are causes of pediatric bacterial meningitis in infants and children?

What is the role of Streptococcus pneumoniae in the etiology of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of Neisseria meningitidis in the etiology of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

Which factors increase the mortality risk for N meningitidis-caused pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib) in the etiology of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of Listeria monocytogenes in the etiology of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What causes of pediatric bacterial meningitis in select populations?

What are the risk factors for pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the prevalence of pediatric bacterial meningitis in the US?

What is the global prevalence of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

Which patient groups have the highest prevalence of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the prognosis of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is included in the patient education about pediatric bacterial meningitis?

Presentation

What are the nonspecific symptoms of bacterial meningitis in neonates?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of pediatric bacterial meningitis in infants and children?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of bacterial meningitis in neonates, infants and young children?

Which factors may delay the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

Which physical findings are characteristic of pediatric bacterial meningitis in infants and children?

What are the possible complications of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

DDX

How is pediatric bacterial meningitis diagnosed?

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

Workup

What is the role of CSF analysis in the workup of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

When is a lumbar puncture contraindicated in the workup of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What are components of the bacterial meningitis score for the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

Which imaging studies are performed in the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of blood and urine studies in the workup of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of lumbar puncture in the workup of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is included in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) studies for the diagnosis of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

How does prior antibiotic administration affect CSF findings in the workup of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of CT and MRI in the workup of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

Treatment

How is pediatric bacterial meningitis treated?

What is included in the initial treatment of acute bacterial meningitis in neonates?

What is included in the initial treatment of acute bacterial meningitis in infants and children?

What are the antibiotic doses for treatment of pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

What is the role of ampicillin in the treatment of pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

What is the role of aminoglycosides and cephalosporins in the treatment of pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

Which factors affect the duration of antibiotic therapy for pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

What steps should be taken when there is no clinical improvement following antibiotic therapy for pediatric bacterial meningitis in neonates?

What are the antibiotic doses for treatment for pediatric bacterial meningitis in infants and children?

What is the role of combination therapies in the treatment of pediatric bacterial meningitis in infants and children?

What is the role of oxazolidinones and fluoroquinolones in the treatment of pediatric bacterial meningitis in infants and children?

How is pediatric bacterial meningitis treated in infants and children with a hypersensitivity to beta-lactam antibiotics?

How is relapse of pediatric bacterial meningitis prevented in infants and children?

What causes secondary fever in pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the duration of antimicrobial therapy for pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of dexamethasone therapy in the treatment of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of chemoprophylaxis in the prevention of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of rifampin in the prevention of invasive Haemophilus influenzae type b (Hib)-caused pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of Hib immunization in the prevention of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

When is chemoprophylaxis against N meningitidis indicated for the prevention of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

What is the role of vaccines in the prevention of pediatric bacterial meningitis?

How is pediatric bacterial meningitis caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae prevented?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for pediatric bacterial meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Vaccines, Inactivated, Bacterial are used in the treatment of Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Corticosteroids are used in the treatment of Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis?

Which medications in the drug class Antibiotics are used in the treatment of Pediatric Bacterial Meningitis?