Pediatric Acute Anemia Follow-up

Updated: Sep 22, 2021
  • Author: Susumu Inoue, MD; Chief Editor: Robert J Arceci, MD, PhD  more...
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Patient Education

In pediatrics beyond the immediate neonatal period, acute anemia is uncommon in otherwise healthy children. In most instances, it is due to blood loss, usually through the GI tract or via a heavy menstrual period, or, in some cases, as a result of acute hemolysis due to sudden onset of autoimmune hemolytic anemia or a hemolytic episode in a child with unrecognized G-6-PD deficiency. It is important to inquire into the degree of menstrual bleeding (number of pads per day and how many days) at every routine visit by adolescent girls. The most common reason for hospitalization due to acute anemia is so-called aplastic crisis in children with chronic hemolytic anemia who otherwise had been stable. Most common varieties are hereditary spherocytosis and sickle cell disease. Therefore it would be prudent to educate parents regarding this complication, at the time when the diagnosis is established.