Panhypopituitarism Treatment & Management

Updated: Apr 21, 2022
  • Author: Robert P Hoffman, MD; Chief Editor: Sasigarn A Bowden, MD  more...
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Medical Care

Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) deficiency

Cortisol deficiency requires prompt recognition and treatment. This is particularly true for the child who may be facing surgery or experiencing other significant stresses related to the cause of hypopituitarism.

Oral replacement is usually with hydrocortisone, usually administered twice daily but can be administered 3 times daily. Prednisone may be considered advantageous because of twice-daily dosing (at about 20-25% of the dose for hydrocortisone). However, growth suppression is a more common problem with prednisone, which should generally be avoided. [37]

Thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) deficiency

The dose of L-thyroxine replacement is age dependent. Monitor free T4 levels and adjust the dose of T4 to maintain reference range levels.

Evaluate and treat cortisol deficiency before starting T4 replacement to avoid precipitating an adrenal crisis.

Gonadotropin deficiency

Begin sex steroid replacement at puberty.

Growth hormone (GH) deficiency

Administer GH replacement in doses of 0.18-0.3 mg/kg/wk subcutaneously, divided in 6-7 doses. Higher doses of up to 0.7 mg/kg/wk may be beneficial in puberty.

A literature review by Giagulli et al indicated that neither short- nor long-term GH supplementation significantly reduces cardiovascular risk in adults with a GH deficit resulting from either isolated GH deficiency or compensated panhypopituitarism. However, both groups of patients in the study did show an increase in fat-free mass, a decrease in fat mass, and a reduction in low-density lipoprotein cholesterol. [38]


Surgical Care

Use surgical treatment for operable pituitary and hypothalamic tumors. If the patient has panhypopituitarism prior to surgery, pituitary function is unlikely to recover.



In all incidents of suspected pituitary dysfunction, a pediatric endocrinologist should be involved in the evaluation and treatment of the child. Determine additional consultations based on the cause of the hypopituitarism.