Infantile Cortical Hyperostosis (Caffey Disease) Differential Diagnoses

Updated: Jan 26, 2021
  • Author: Cara Novick, MD; Chief Editor: Vinod K Panchbhavi, MD, FACS, FAOA, FABOS, FAAOS  more...
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Diagnostic Considerations

The most significant differential diagnosis is osteomyelitis because of the need for urgent treatment. In addition, the following conditions should be included in the differential diagnosis:

  • Trauma
  • Hypervitaminosis A
  • Hyperphosphatemia
  • Prostaglandin E1 and E2 administration
  • Infection (including syphilis)
  • Metastatic neuroblastoma

Other diseases can usually be excluded on the basis of the narrow age range for presentation of infantile cortical hyperostosis; the triad of irritability, swelling, and bone lesions; and the presence of mandibular involvement.

Differential Diagnoses