Osteosarcoma Guidelines

Updated: Jul 01, 2020
  • Author: Charles T Mehlman, DO, MPH; Chief Editor: Omohodion (Odion) Binitie, MD  more...
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NCCN and ESMO-PaedCan-EURACAN Clinical Practice Guidelines for Treatment of Osteosarcoma

Guidelines Contributor: Mrinal M Gounder, MD Attending Physician in Medical Oncology, Sarcoma and Developmental Therapeutics Service, Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer Center

Guidelines for the treatment of osteosarcoma have been published by the following organizations:

  • National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN) [30]
  • European Society for Medical Oncology (ESMO), European Reference Network for Paediatric Cancers (PaedCan), and European Network for Rare Adult Solid Cancer (EURACAN) [31]

The NCCN recommends that in all patients with osteosarcoma, enrollment in a clinical trial should be considered when available; in addition, whenever possible patients should be referred to a tertiary care center with expertise in sarcoma, for treatment by a multidisciplinary team. Other guideline recommendations on treatment of osteosarcoma vary by disease stage.

Treatment recommendations for stages IA-IB (low grade) osteosarcomas are as follows:

  • Localized, low-grade osteosarcomas – The NCCN recommends wide excision alone; chemotherapy (see regimens below) prior to excision is not typically recommended but could be considered for periosteal lesions [30]
  • Low-grade intramedullary and surface osteosarcoma and periosteal sarcomas with pathological findings of high-grade disease – The NCCN recommends postoperative chemotherapy [30] ; ESMO-PaedCan-EURACAN recommends surgery alone for low-grade parosteal osteosarcomas, and finds no benefit for chemotherapy for periosteal lesions [31]
  • Unresectable or incompletely resected osteosarcoma – The NCCN and ESMO-PaedCan-EURACAN guidelines concur that combined photon/proton or proton beam radiotherapy for local control is an option [30, 31]

NCCN treatment recommendations for stages IIA-IVB (high grade) and metastatic disease include the following [30] :

  • Enrollment in a clinical trial should be considered when available; in addition, whenever possible patients should be referred to a tertiary care center with expertise in sarcoma, for treatment by a multidisciplinary team
  • Preoperative chemotherapy is recommended for all stages of high-grade disease (category 1)
  • If good margins can be achieved, limb-sparing surgery is preferred for patients with good histologic response to chemotherapy; amputation for tumors in unfavorable anatomical locations
  • Postoperative chemotherapy should continue with preoperative regimen if there has been a good histologic response; for patients with a poor response, consider postoperative chemotherapy with a different regimen
  • Surgical re-resection with or without radiation therapy for positive margins should be considered
  • For unresectable osteosarcomas following preoperative chemotherapy, consider radiation therapy or chemotherapy

NCCN treatment recommendations for metastatic disease at presentation include the following [30] :

  • For resectable metastatic disease (pulmonary, visceral or skeletal), preoperative chemotherapy followed by wide excision of primary tumor; chemotherapy and metastasectomy is also a treatment option
  • For unresectable metastatic disease, chemotherapy with or without radiation therapy; reassess primary site for local control

ESMO-PaedCan-EURACAN recommends that primary metastatic osteosarcoma be treated with a curative intent, following the principles of non-metastatic osteosarcomas. [31]

For relapsed or refractory osteosarcoma, NCCN guidelines recommend second-line chemotherapy, resection, or both. Options for disease progression after second-line therapy include the following [30] :

  • Re-resection, if possible
  • Clinical trial
  • Palliative radiation therapy or best supportive treatment

ESMO-PaedCan-EURACAN guidelines advise that the treatment of recurrent osteosarcoma is primarily surgical, in the case of isolated lung metastases, although stereotactic radiationa therapy, radiofrequency ablation, or cryotherapy might be alternative options in patients unfit for surgery. ESMO-PaedCan-EURACAN guidelines note that there is no accepted standard regimen for second-line chemotherapy for recurrent disease, but ifosfamide with or without etoposide with or without carboplatin, or gemcitabine and docetaxel or sorafenib may be considered. Radiation therapy, including samarium, may be used for palliation. [31]

Chemotherapy regimens

ESMO-PaedCan-EURACAN guidelines note that doxorubicin, cisplatin, high-dose methotrexate, and ifosfamide have antitumor activity in osteosarcoma. In patients older than 40 years, preferred regimens often combine doxorubicin, cisplatin, and ifosfamide without high-dose methotrexate. [31]

For first-line osteosarcoma therapy (primary/neoadjuvant/adjuvant therapy or for metastatic disease), NCCN recommendations are as follows [30] :

  • Cisplatin and doxorubicin (category 1)
  • MAP (high-dose methotrexate, cisplatin, and doxorubicin)(category 1)
  • Doxorubicin, cisplatin, ifosfamide, and high-dose methotrexate

For second-line therapy (relapsed/refractory or metastatic disease), NCCN recommendations are as follows [30] :

  • Ifosfamide (high dose) ± etoposide
  • Regorafenib (category 1)
  • Sorafenib
  • Sorafenib ± everolimus (category 2B)
  • Cyclophosphamide and topotecan
  • Docetaxel and gemcitabine
  • Gemcitabine

Regimens considered useful in certain circumstances are as follows [30] :

  • Cyclophosphamide and etoposide
  • Ifosfamide, carboplatin, and etoposide
  • High-dose methotrexate
  • High-dose methotrexate, etoposide, and ifosfamide
  • Samarium-153 ethylene diamine tetramethylene phosphonate (SM-EDTMP) for relapsed or refractory disease beyond second-line therapy