Periodic Paralyses Questions & Answers

Updated: Apr 30, 2018
  • Author: Naganand Sripathi, MD; Chief Editor: Nicholas Lorenzo, MD, CPE, MHCM, FAAPL  more...
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Questions & Answers

Overview

What is periodic paralyses (PP)?

How is primary periodic paralyses (PP) classified?

What is the pathophysiology of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of channel dysfunction in the pathophysiology of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of muscle sodium channel gene in the pathophysiology of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of temperature sensitivity in the pathophysiology of periodic paralyses (PP)?

Which genetic mutations cause hyperkalemic periodic paralyses (PP)?

Which genetic mutations cause normokalemic periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of calcium channel gene in the pathophysiology of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of voltage sensor charge loss in the pathophysiology of hypokalemic periodic paralyses (HypoPP)?

What is the role of potassium channel gene in the pathophysiology of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the prevalence of periodic paralyses (PP)?

Presentation

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of periodic paralyses (PP)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hyperkalemic periodic paralyses (PP)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of hypokalemic periodic paralyses (HypoPP)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of paramyotonia congenita?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of thyrotoxic periodic paralyses (TPP)?

Which clinical history findings are characteristic of Andersen-Tawil syndrome?

Which physical findings are characteristic of periodic paralyses (PP)?

DDX

Which conditions should be included in the differential diagnoses of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What are the differential diagnoses for Periodic Paralyses?

Workup

What is the role of lab testing in the workup of hypokalemic periodic paralyses (HypoPP)?

Which lab studies are used for the workup of hyperkalemic periodic paralyses (HyperPP)?

What is the role of nerve conduction studies in the workup of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of muscle cooling in the workup of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of exercise testing in the workup of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of a needle electrode exam in the workup of periodic paralyses (PP)?

What are general precautions for provocative testing in patients with periodic paralyses (PP)?

What is the role of provocative testing in the workup of hypokalemic periodic paralyses (HypoPP)?

What is the role of provocative testing in the workup of hyperkalemic periodic paralyses (HyperPP)?

Which histologic findings are characteristic of periodic paralyses (PP)?

Treatment

How is periodic paralyses (PP) treated?

How is hypokalemic periodic paralyses (HypoPP) treated?

What is the role of dichlorphenamide in hypokalemic periodic paralyses (HypoPP) prophylaxis?

How is thyrotoxic periodic paralyses (TPP) treated?

How is hyperkalemic periodic paralyses (HyperPP) treated?

How is paramyotonia congenita treated?

How is potassium-associated myotonia, treated?

How is Andersen-Tawil syndrome treated?

What is the role of surgery in the treatment of periodic paralyses (PP)?

Which dietary modifications are used in the treatment of periodic paralyses (PP)?

Medications

What are the goals of drug treatment for periodic paralyses (PP)?

Which medications in the drug class Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors are used in the treatment of Periodic Paralyses?

Follow-up

What is the prognosis of periodic paralyses (PP)?

Where are patient education resources about periodic paralyses (PP) found?