Pulmonary Atelectasis Medication

Updated: May 06, 2018
  • Author: Nazir A Lone, MD, MBBS, MPH, FACP, FCCP; Chief Editor: Girish D Sharma, MD, FCCP, FAAP  more...
  • Print
Medication

Medication Summary

Tailor therapy to the underlying disorder whenever possible. Antibiotics are not necessary if the child has asthma and uses oral corticosteroids, frequent inhaled bronchodilators, or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids to address the underlying inflammation and bronchospasm. For more information, see Asthma. The National Asthma Education and Prevention Program (NAEPP) provides detailed information regarding managing children or adults with asthma. For more information see the NAEPP guidelines. [17]

If the child has cystic fibrosis, aggressive antibiotic therapy is indicated in conjunction with chest physical therapy and postural drainage. In children with cystic fibrosis, reducing the load of Pseudomonas species in airways facilitates airway clearance. See Cystic Fibrosis for a more complete discussion on the indications for antibiotics, antibiotics used, and dosing schedule in these patients.

Next:

Bronchodilators

Class Summary

These agents decrease muscle tone in the small and large airways in the lungs, thereby increasing ventilation. They are used in children with asthma and are potentially helpful in children with cystic fibrosis.

Albuterol (Ventolin HFA, Proventil HFA, ProAir HFA)

Relaxes bronchial smooth muscle by action on beta2-receptors with little effect on cardiac muscle contractility. First-line bronchodilator that should be used with spacer if using metered dose inhaler.

Previous
Next:

Systemic corticosteroids

Class Summary

These agents effectively reduce airway inflammation in asthma and cystic fibrosis, which allows easier mobilization of secretions. These also reduce airway reactivity, which might increase propensity to atelectasis.

Prednisone (Deltasone, Prednisone Intensol, Rayos)

Prednisone may decrease inflammation by reversing increased capillary permeability and suppressing PMN activity. It may also cause profound and varied metabolic effects, particularly in relation to salt, water, and glucose tolerance, in addition to their modification of the immune response of the body.

Prednisolone (Orapred ODT, Millipred, Millipred DP, Veripred 20)

Prednisolone blocks release of inflammatory mediators by inhibiting phospholipase A2. Decreases inflammation by suppressing production of leukotrienes, migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reducing capillary permeability. Corticosteroids may also cause profound and varied metabolic effects, particularly in relation to salt, water, and glucose tolerance, in addition to their modification of the immune response of the body.

Previous
Next:

Corticosteroid and bronchodilator combinations

Class Summary

These agents elicit long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonistic and anti-inflammatory effects for persistent asthma.

Fluticasone and salmeterol (Advair HFA, Advair Diskus, RespiClick)

Indicated to treat chronic persistent asthma. Salmeterol component elicits long-acting beta2-adrenergic agonist activity, resulting in bronchiole smooth muscle relaxation. Fluticasone is a corticosteroid that provides anti-inflammatory effects.

Available as dry powder inhalant containing fluticasone (100 mcg, 250 mcg, or 500 mcg) with salmeterol (50 mcg) or containing 55 mcg, 113 mcg, or 232 mcg fluticasone with salmeterol 14 mcg. HFA preparation in metered dose inhalers has 45, 115 or 230 mcg per puff, each with 21 mcg of salmeterol.

Budesonide/formoterol (Symbicort)

Formoterol relieves bronchospasm by relaxing the smooth muscles of the bronchioles in conditions associated with asthma.

Budesonide is an inhaled corticosteroid that alters level of inflammation in airways by inhibiting multiple types of inflammatory cells and decreasing production of cytokines and other mediators involved in the asthmatic response. Available as MDI in 2 strengths; each actuation delivers formoterol 4.5 mcg with either 80 mcg or 160 mcg.

Previous
Next:

Corticosteroids, Inhalants

Beclomethasone, inhaled (Qvar)

Decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversing capillary permeability. Available as 40 mcg/actuation or 80 mcg/actuation.

Fluticasone inhaled (Flovent Diskus, Flovent HFA, Arnuity Ellipta, ArmonAir RespiClick)

Fluticasone decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversing capillary permeability. Available as aerosol, Flovent HFA (44 mcg/actuation, 110 mcg/actuation, or 220 mcg/actuation), also available as Flovent Powder for Inhalation (Diskus) that delivers 50 mcg/actuation, 100 mcg/actuation, or 250 mcg/actuation

Budesonide inhaled (Pulmicort Flexhaler, Pulmicort)

Budesonide is relatively new to US market but has been extensively used in Europe. It has recently been released in a nebulizer solution approved for use in children as young as 12 mo.

Budesonide decreases inflammation by suppressing the migration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and reversing capillary permeability. Available as Pulmicort Flexhaler, powder for inhalation (90 mcg/actuation and 180 mcg/actuation, each actuation delivers 80 mcg/actuation and 160 mcg respectively). Nebulization has been used in children aged 1-8 y.

Previous